Narration(Direct and Indirect Speech)
Direct Speech: If a sentence is directly spoken by speaker is called direct speech.
Example: Manish Says, “she is very honest”.
NOTE: Direct Speech always comes under inverted Commas (“”)
Indirect Speech: If a sentence is changed by some person with set of rules and presented is call indirect speech.
Example: Manish says that she is very honest.
NOTE: Indirect Speech does not come under inverted Commas (“”)
Following Set Of Rules Are Used While Converting Direct To Indirect Speech:
1. Commas are removed from direct speech and ‘that ‘is used as conjunction while converting direct to indirect speech.
2. Subject are changed according to persons as shown below:
1st person (I, we)>>>>>>>>according to subject
2nd person (you)>>>>>>>>according to object
3rd person (he, she, they, it)>>>>>>>No change
She says,” I work hard”.
She says that she works hard. (Indirect Speech)
In above sentence ‘I’ has been changed in ‘She’ according to subject.
He tells me that he works hard. (Indirect Speech)
He says to me, “He works hard.”
In above sentence ‘he’ is 3rd person and no change.
Few Things to Note:
1. ‘Says to ‘ changes to ‘tells’ and ‘said to ‘ changes to ‘told’.
2. Object need to come after tell, told, requested, ordered and forbade.
3. If sentence is in ‘present or future tense’ then no need to change tense of indirect speech.
Examples: Ravi Says,” It’s raining.”
Ravi says that it’s raining (Indirect Speech)
While changing direct to indirect speech, Following is change in tense:
1. Present Tense:
1. Simple Present will be changed in Simple Past i.e.’ Do/Does’ will be converted into ‘Did’.
2. Present Continuous will be changed in Past continuous i.e. is/am/are will be converted into was/were.
3. Present Perfect /Present Perfect continuous will be changed in Past Perfect/Past Perfect Continuous.
i.e. has /have will be converted into ‘had’.
2. Past Tense:
1. Simple Past will be changed in Past Perfect i.e. did will be converted into Had+Verb 3
2. Past Continuous will be changed in Past perfect Continuous i.e. was /were will be converted into had been
3. Past Perfect /Past Perfect Continuous: NO Change
3. Special Cases:
If Reporting verb is in past and Speech is ‘Idiom /Phrases/universal Truth/Any historical facts then No need to change tense of reported speech.
Manoj Said,” Sun rises from East.”
Manoj Said that Sum rises from East. (Indirect Speech)
Will →Would,Shall→Should,May→Might,Can →could
today→that day,tomorrow→the next day, yesterday→the previous day,tonight→that night,
Last→previous,here→there,this →that,these →those,ago →before,now→then
The teacher Said to the student,” why were you absent yesterday?
The teacher asked student why he has been absent the previous day. (Indirect Speech)
Exclamatory Sentences, Following changes need to done:
Alas! →exclaimed with sorrow
Oh! →exclaimed with regret
Wow! →Exclaimed with Joy
Hurray! →Exclaimed with Joy
Ugh! →Exclaimed with despise
He said,”Fi! And Vomited.
He exclaimed with disgust and vomited
Rules for Converting Interrogative sentences (WH Family):
1. ‘Said to’ will be changed into asked, questioned or inquired.
2. Helping verb will be used after subject.
3. Question mark (?) will be changed in full stop (.)
4. Rest Changes will according to Rules.
He said to me, “when will you come back?”
He asked me when I would come back. (Indirect Speech)
My father said to me,” when will your college start?”
My father asked me when my college would start. (Indirect Speech)
He Said to him,” Did you intend to come with me?”
He asked him if he had intended to come with him. (Indirect Speech)
NOTE: If Question starts with WH family then no need to use conjunction and if Question start with helping verb i.e. do, does, did then we need to use if/whether to connect sentences.
‘Did you come here yesterday?’ the man asked the boy.
‘Have you ever been to a zoo?’ Mr. James asked me.
‘Did you have any difficulty in finding my address?’ the old woman asked me.
‘Has your father gone to work?’ I asked the boy.
‘May I go home?’ the boy asked.
‘Shall we invite John to the party?’ Mark asked.
Sony asked Pawan, ‘Have you seen my new car?’
‘Are you a clever boy?’ the stranger asked Harry.
The man asked the boy if he had gone there yesterday.
Mr.James asked me if I had ever been to a zoo.
The old woman asked me if I had any difficulty in finding her address.
I asked the boy if his father had gone to work.
The boy asked if he might go home.
Mark asked if they should invite John to the party.
Sony asked Pawan if he had seen his new car.
The stranger asked Harry whether he was a clever boy.
Last Years /Previous Years Narration asked in competitive examination
“could i have a cup of coffee”, she said.
She asked if she could have a cup of coffee.
‘Please,please don’t do anything dangerous’,said his wife.
His wife begged him not to do anything dangerous.
He said to his friends,”Let us play some country music and dance”
He suggested to his friends that they could play some country music and dance.
“Which way is the post office?” the lady asked
The lady asked the way to the post office.
” Do you know the way to the bus station?” Ram said to Mahim.
Ram asked Mahim if he knew the way to the bus station.
‘Please be patient and letter will come’,said the teacher to student.
The teacher advised the student to be patient and wait for letter.
“I must hurry,my father is always furious if any one of us is late for
She said that she must hurry as her father was always furious if any one of them
was late for meals.
He said,”As your mother is ill, you must leave at once.”
He told him that as his mother was ill , he should leave at once.
She Shouted,” I am going home”.
She shouted to them that she was going home.
Jennifer said,” What will you do when you leave school?”
Jennifer asked someone what she would do when she would leave school.
Mr Pritham said,” I shall go to Delhi tomorrow.”
Mr Pritham said that he would go to Delhi the next day.
Next morning at breakfast Ramesh’wife said to him,”Ramesh I think I can tell what is amiss with our clock.”
Next morning at breakfast Ramesh’s wife addressed him by name and told him that she thought that she could tell what was amiss with their clock.
“Are you the manager?” I said
I asked him whether he was the manager.
The minister announced that a new employment scheme would be implemented from
the following month.
The minister said,”A new employment scheme will be implemented next month
“Have you finished your work,Ahmad?”asked Vinod.
Vinod asked Ahmad whether he had finished his work.
Sachin said,”could you please write the project for me,Shweta?”
Sachin requested Shweta to write the project for her.
“It’s a cold day today !’Cried the boy.
The boy exclaimed that it was cold that day.
“Are your examinations over?”asked the teacher.
The teacher asked whether his examination were over.
“Do your duty.”,the father told his son.
The father advised his son to do his duty.
Mike said ,”Don’t fly via Paris.”
Mike advised me not to fly via Paris.
Jane said to me,”Do you want to dance?”
Jane asked me if I wanted to dance.
Saint George,strike for us!” exclaimed the Knight.
The Knight prayed that Saint George might strike for them.
“I usually take my dog out for a walk when I come home from work”,he said.
He said that he usually took hos dog out for a walk when he came home from work.
The Officer said,”Cowards ! you shall soon be put to death.”
The Officer called them cowards and said that they would soon be put to death
Rajiv said to me,”He plays with right hand.”
Rajiv told me that he plays with right hand.
My father said to me,”will you sit and study at least now.”
My father asked me if i would sit and study at least then.
The guide said to the swimmer,”Don’t swim out too far.”
The guide forbade the swimmer to swim out too far.
He Said to me,”where are you going?”
He asked me where I was going.
He wished me respectfully and told that he had come to join the office.
He said to me,”Good morning Sir ! I have come to join the office.”
He said to his father,”Shall I go to market now?”
He asked his father if he should go to market then.
“Oh! how foolish I have been in money matters!”
He confessed regretfuly that he had been very foolish in money matters.
I said,”Good-bye my beloved friends.”
I bade me beloved friends good-bye.
The Commander said,”Let the gates be left open.”
The Commander ordered for the gates to be left open.
I said to my mother,”Please warm this milk.Don’t boil it.”
I requested my mother to warm that milk and asked her not boil it.
I said to my friend,”Can i borrow your dictionary for one day only?”
I asked my friend if i could borrow his dictionary for one day only.
He asked me if I would like to have lunch with him that day.
He said to me,”Would you like to have lunch with me today?”
“Sam,Will you help me carry my bags?” asked the old woman.
The old woman asked Sam whether he would help her carry her bags.
The teacher said to me,”I hope you will bring credit to my school.”
The teacher hoped that I would bring credit to his school.
“What an excellent peice of art!”she said.
She exclaimed with appreciation that it was an excellent piece of art.
“they are late.” she has already told us.
She has already told us that they are late.
The Teacher said.”Don’t come to school on Mondat because it is a holiday..”
The teacher told us not to come to school on Monday because it is a holiday.
The teacher said to his student,”Do you have any excuse for coming late to school today?”
The teacher asked his student whether he had any excuse for coming late to the school that day.